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What are the independent, dependent, & extraneous or confounding variables?

University
of West Georgia
Tanner
Health System School of Nursing
NURS
4523 Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice for RNs
Research Report Appraisal
Guidelines

As
a consumer of nursing research, nurses are increasingly expected to be able to
use the research literature for evidence-based practice. In order to do this
well, students should be able to read and understand the research literature.
As a result, this assignment requires the student to read and identify various
components of an assigned research report article (posted in CourseDen). All students will be critiquing the same
article; however, students are to complete the critique or appraisal independently.
Students are NOT to collaborate with
other students, family, or friends in the completion of this assignment (i.e.
do not discuss the article or your critique with others, especially other
students in this course). The paper should be approximately 5 7 pages (not
including the title page and reference page). Be succinct but informative in
your writing. APA formatting/style is expected including:

Title
Page

Headings

Margins
(1 inch)

Font
size – 12

Double-spacing

Page
numbers

Reference
Page

Direct
quotes: You may only have 1-2 direct
quotes. If there are more, points will
be deducted in the formatting section

Use
APA format for citations and references

DO
NOT use personal pronouns (such as I, we, our) except in, perhaps, the Assessment
of the Research Article section

Do
use correct grammar and spelling

Be
sure to proof read your paper for errors and typos

Keep
it succinct!
Remember: Evidence of student
cheating, fabrication, or plagiarism could result in failure of this course.
Research
Report Assessment
Headings

Article Summary
Research Question(s) or Hypothesis
Research Variables
Independent
Variable(s)
Dependent
Variable(s)
Extraneous (or Confounding)
Variable(s)
Research Design
Population, Sample, and Setting
Study Setting
Target and
Accessible Population
Sample and
Sampling Plan
Ethical Issues
Data Collection Procedures
Date Collection Instruments
Data Analysis & Results
Researchers Discussion/Conclusions:
Main
Findings/Conclusions
Generalizability
Limitations
Nursing
Implications
Future Research
Assessment of the Research Article
Presentation and Stylistic Dimensions
of the Article
References (Include on separate page
with citation for article used for appraisal in APA format)
Research Report AppraisalGuidelines

Article
Summary (1 short paragraph):

Write
a succinct summary of what the research article is about. Include a statement
about what problem was being addressed and why the problem is important.
Indicate what the purpose (or aim or objective) of the research study was (as
identified by the researchers).

Research
Questions/Hypothesis:

If
none are provided,state
an appropriate research question or hypothesis for this study based on the purpose
of the study.

Research
Variables:

What
are the independent, dependent, & extraneous or confounding variables?

Research
Design:

Identify
the design of the study (quantitative, qualitative, descriptive,
phenomenological, randomized controlled trial, etc.). Be as specific as
possible. Explain what makes it that type of study (1 or 2 sentences) and/or
why it was an appropriate design for the study

Population,
Sample, and Setting:

Describe
the setting, population (target & accessible), and the sample used in the
study (include who was in the study, number of participants, etc.). Identify
the sampling plan (i.e. convenience sample, purposive sample, etc.),
recruitment strategies (how did they get people to participate). Are there
inclusion and exclusion criteria? What were the main demographics of the
study sample?(i.e. average age of participants, percentage of males/females,
etc.)

Ethical
Issues:

Identify
and describe any measures taken to protect the participants (esp. informed
consent, IRB or ethics committee approval, protecting participants identity,
etc.)

Data
Collection Procedures:

Describe
how the researcher went about collecting the data (i.e. sent out
questionnaires, interviewed participants, measured blood samples, collected
data over 6 months, followed up with phone calls, or whatever)

Data
Collection Instruments:

Describe
EACH instrument used to gather data; include the name of the instrument (if
provided); the purpose (what it measures); reliability and validity (R&V)
information (if provided); level of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval,
or ratio) and how a score on the instrument is derived; and number of items
on each instrument, if stated. If they
dont talk about an instrument but they report data, then describe that. Or
if they describe an instrument but dont talk about the R&V, you can just
say R&V was not addressed.

Data
Analysis & Results

Identify
the statistical tests that were used in the study (name them) both
descriptive (i.e., means, standard deviations, etc.) and inferential (i.e.,
t-test, ANOVA, etc.). Describe the main findings or results of the study as
they relate to the research questions or hypotheses.

Researcher’s
Discussion/Conclusions:

Describe
the researchers conclusions about the study. What did they say were the main
study findings? According to the researcher, were the study findings generalizable?
What limitations or barriers to the study, nursing implications, and
recommendations for future research were made by the researcher(s)? Did you
note any other limitations? (Generalizability deals with threats to external
validity of the study findings; limitations or barriers to the study deal
with threats to internal and external validity of the study and findings)

Assessment
of Research Article (1-2 paragraphs):

Did
you agree with the researcher(s) about the study findings? Why or Why not?
Was there anything that you felt was not appropriate? Was the problem being
addressed made clear? Did the hypothesis or research question(s) seem to fit
with the problem? Did the study design seem to fit with the hypothesis or
research question(s)? What about the sampling plan? Did it seem effective and
appropriate? Did you note any problems with internal and external (generalizability)
validity in the study? Were the findings clinically significant? Do you think
there were any alternative reasons for the results the researcher(s) got?
Anything else?

Presentation
and Stylistic Dimensions of the Article:

Evaluate
the manner in which the findings were communicated in the research report
areas you might consider: amount of information; writing style; anything
missing; Do the tables seem to be laid out appropriately and do they make
sense?

References

Include
a proper reference citation for the research article and any other sources
you might have cited in the paper. (NOTE:
no additional sources are required, but be sure to cite sources if you
do decide to use them).

University
of West GeorgiaTanner
Health System School of NursingNURS
4523 Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice for RNsResearch Report Appraisal
GuidelinesAs
a consumer of nursing research, nurses are increasingly expected to be able to
use the research literature for evidence-based practice. In order to do this
well, students should be able to read and understand the research literature.
As a result, this assignment requires the student to read and identify various
components of an assigned research report article (posted in CourseDen). All students will be critiquing the same
article; however, students are to complete the critique or appraisal independently.
Students are NOT to collaborate with
other students, family, or friends in the completion of this assignment (i.e.
do not discuss the article or your critique with others, especially other
students in this course). The paper should be approximately 5 7 pages (not
including the title page and reference page). Be succinct but informative in
your writing. APA formatting/style is expected including:
Title
Page
Headings

Margins
(1 inch)
Font
size – 12
Double-spacing

Page
numbers
Reference
Page Direct
quotes: You may only have 1-2 direct
quotes. If there are more, points will
be deducted in the formatting section Use
APA format for citations and references DO
NOT use personal pronouns (such as I, we, our) except in, perhaps, the Assessment
of the Research Article sectionDo
use correct grammar and spelling Be
sure to proof read your paper for errors and typos Keep
it succinct! Remember: Evidence of student
cheating, fabrication, or plagiarism could result in failure of this course.Research
Report Assessment
HeadingsArticle SummaryResearch Question(s) or Hypothesis Research Variables Independent
Variable(s) Dependent
Variable(s) Extraneous (or Confounding)
Variable(s) Research Design Population, Sample, and Setting Study Setting Target and
Accessible Population Sample and
Sampling Plan Ethical Issues Data Collection Procedures Date Collection Instruments Data Analysis & Results Researchers Discussion/Conclusions: Main
Findings/ConclusionsGeneralizability Limitations Nursing
Implications Future Research Assessment of the Research Article Presentation and Stylistic Dimensions
of the Article References (Include on separate page
with citation for article used for appraisal in APA format)Research Report AppraisalGuidelines
Article
Summary (1 short paragraph): Write
a succinct summary of what the research article is about. Include a statement
about what problem was being addressed and why the problem is important.
Indicate what the purpose (or aim or objective) of the research study was (as
identified by the researchers).Research
Questions/Hypothesis:If
none are provided,state
an appropriate research question or hypothesis for this study based on the purpose
of the study.
Research
Variables: What
are the independent, dependent, & extraneous or confounding variables?Research
Design: Identify
the design of the study (quantitative, qualitative, descriptive,
phenomenological, randomized controlled trial, etc.). Be as specific as
possible. Explain what makes it that type of study (1 or 2 sentences) and/or
why it was an appropriate design for the studyPopulation,
Sample, and Setting: Describe
the setting, population (target & accessible), and the sample used in the
study (include who was in the study, number of participants, etc.). Identify
the sampling plan (i.e. convenience sample, purposive sample, etc.),
recruitment strategies (how did they get people to participate). Are there
inclusion and exclusion criteria? What were the main demographics of the
study sample?(i.e. average age of participants, percentage of males/females,
etc.)Ethical
Issues:Identify
and describe any measures taken to protect the participants (esp. informed
consent, IRB or ethics committee approval, protecting participants identity,
etc.)Data
Collection Procedures: Describe
how the researcher went about collecting the data (i.e. sent out
questionnaires, interviewed participants, measured blood samples, collected
data over 6 months, followed up with phone calls, or whatever)Data
Collection Instruments: Describe
EACH instrument used to gather data; include the name of the instrument (if
provided); the purpose (what it measures); reliability and validity (R&V)
information (if provided); level of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval,
or ratio) and how a score on the instrument is derived; and number of items
on each instrument, if stated. If they
dont talk about an instrument but they report data, then describe that. Or
if they describe an instrument but dont talk about the R&V, you can just
say R&V was not addressed.Data
Analysis & Results Identify
the statistical tests that were used in the study (name them) both
descriptive (i.e., means, standard deviations, etc.) and inferential (i.e.,
t-test, ANOVA, etc.). Describe the main findings or results of the study as
they relate to the research questions or hypotheses.Researcher’s
Discussion/Conclusions: Describe
the researchers conclusions about the study. What did they say were the main
study findings? According to the researcher, were the study findings generalizable?
What limitations or barriers to the study, nursing implications, and
recommendations for future research were made by the researcher(s)? Did you
note any other limitations? (Generalizability deals with threats to external
validity of the study findings; limitations or barriers to the study deal
with threats to internal and external validity of the study and findings)Assessment
of Research Article (1-2 paragraphs): Did
you agree with the researcher(s) about the study findings? Why or Why not?
Was there anything that you felt was not appropriate? Was the problem being
addressed made clear? Did the hypothesis or research question(s) seem to fit
with the problem? Did the study design seem to fit with the hypothesis or
research question(s)? What about the sampling plan? Did it seem effective and
appropriate? Did you note any problems with internal and external (generalizability)
validity in the study? Were the findings clinically significant? Do you think
there were any alternative reasons for the results the researcher(s) got?
Anything else?Presentation
and Stylistic Dimensions of the Article: Evaluate
the manner in which the findings were communicated in the research report
areas you might consider: amount of information; writing style; anything
missing; Do the tables seem to be laid out appropriately and do they make
sense?ReferencesInclude
a proper reference citation for the research article and any other sources
you might have cited in the paper. (NOTE:
no additional sources are required, but be sure to cite sources if you
do decide to use them).

"Order a similar paper and get 15% discount on your first order with us
Use the following coupon
"FIRST15"

Order Now