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Identify the barrier you selected from the article and explain how this barrier could be overcome within your organization.

Week 1 discussion
Nursing Research and
Evidence-Based Practice
In your practice as a nurse, you may use procedures and
methods that did not necessarily originate in evidence, but instead were
derived from informal and unwritten conventions, traditions, and observations.
While these techniques may have merit, practices are constantly being updated
and contradicted by information from scholarly research studies and
professional guidelines. This new information serves as evidence for revising
practices to improve outcomes across health care.
Based on this evidence, you can formulate a question. In
this Discussion, you consider the use of evidence-based practice in your own
organization and formulate a question that you will need to answer for your
portfolio project. This is called a PICOT question. You will also investigate
strategies for overcoming barriers to implementing evidence-based practice
(EBP).
To prepare:
Consider a recent clinical experience in which you were
providing care for a patient.
Determine the extent to which the care that you provided was
based on evidence and research findings or supported only by your
organizations standard procedures. How do you know if the tasks were based on
research?
What questions have you thought about in a particular area
of care such as a procedure or policy?
Review Chapter 2, pages 3639 on Asking Well worded
Clinical Questions in Polit & Beck and consult the resource from the
Walden Student Center for Success: Clinical Question Anatomy & examples of
PICOT questions (found in this weeks Learning Resources). Formulate your
background questions and PICOT question.
Reflect on the barriers that might inhibit the
implementation of evidence-based practice in your clinical environment.
Review the article Adopting Evidence-Based Practice in
Clinical Decision Making in this weeks Learning Resources. Select one of the
barriers described that is evident in your organization and formulate a plan
for overcoming this barrier.
By Day 3
Post an evaluation of the use, or lack thereof, of EBP in a
recent clinical experience. Identify which aspects of the care delivered, if
any, were based on evidence and provide your rationale. List your background
questions and PICOT question about this nursing topic. Critique how the policies,
procedures, and culture in your organization may hinder or support the adoption
of evidence-based practices. Identify the barrier you selected from the article
and explain how this barrier could be overcome within your organization.
Read a selection of your colleagues responses.
By Day 6
Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different
days using one or more of the following approaches:
Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional
background information, and evidence.
Share an insight from having read your colleagues postings,
synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.
Validate an idea with your own experience and additional
sources.
Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from
readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.
Expand on your colleagues postings by providing additional
strategies for addressing barriers to EBP based on readings and evidence.

Week 2 discussion
Literature Searches
An important step in the EBP process is reviewing the current
body of literature to better understand the subject or topic in which you are
interested. By conducting a review of the literature, you are building
foundational knowledge about the topic; later, you can use this background to
build new insights. Developing a strong grasp of a topic can only be garnered
by taking the time to thoroughly search for relevant information and resources.
For this Discussion, you will practice searching the
literature to find evidence on a specific topic.
To prepare:
Choose a simple search term(s) relating to a topic of your
PICOT question.
Review the information on the evidence hierarchy discussed
in Chapter 2 of the course text, in the article, Facilitating Access to
Pre-Processed Research Evidence in Public Health, and in the multimedia
presentation Hierarchy of Evidence Pyramid, found in this weeks Learning
Resources.
Review the information on the Walden Librarys website,
Levels of evidence. Take a few minutes to explore the different types of
databases available for each level of evidence and focus on the meaning of
filtered and non-filtered resources.
Conduct a literature search in the Walden Library on your
selected topic using the databases that you reviewed. Use at least one database
for each of the three levels of filtered information and at least one
unfiltered database. Record the number of hits that you find at each level of
the hierarchy of evidence.
Select one article from the results at each level of the
hierarchy. Compare the articles based on the quality and depth of information.
What would be the value of each resource if you were determining an
evidence-based practice?
By Day 3
Post a summary of your search. Describe what topic you
selected, the search term(s) that you used, and the number of results found at
each level of the hierarchy. Compare the types of information found in the
articles from different levels and the value of the information from each
level. Highlight a useful tip that you could share with your colleagues about
conducting an effective literature search.
Read a selection of your colleagues responses.
By Day 6
Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different
days using one or more of the following approaches:
Share an insight from having read your colleagues postings,
synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.
Validate an idea with your own experience and additional
sources.
Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from
readings, or after synthesizing multiple postings.

Week 3 discussion
Theory, Research, and
Evidence-Based Practice
As they explore the world around them, young children often
want to know the why and how of the things they observe. This is similar to
what researchers do when they approach a new problem. Researchers develop new
theories or build on old ones to explain the why of the world around them.
They use models and conceptual frameworks to help explain how the processes
and events they observe occur. Together, theories and models provide an
understanding of the world and allow researchers to explore it in meaningful
ways.
Virtually all research questions can benefit from the use of
an existing theory or model. Researchers should consider their research
questions and select the most suitable theory or model, which then serves as a
foundation for the research design. The selection of a theory or model is an
important part of the research process.

In this Discussion, you focus on the role of theory and
models in research and evidence-based practice.
To prepare:
Review the information in Chapter 6 of the course text.
Focus on the various conceptual theories and models that are currently used in
nursing research.
Select one of the theories or models described that is of
interest to you.
Using the Walden Library, search for and identify a research
article that uses the theory or model you selected.
Reflect on how the theory or model provides structure to the
research study described in the article.
Now, think about an issue in your practice area that you
would be interested in exploring through research.
Review this weeks media presentation and consider
strategies for locating and identifying a relevant theory or model for a
research study.
By Day 3
Post a summary of the article that you located and explain
how the theory or model that you selected was used in the research study.
Assess the value of basing research on an established theory or model.
Read a selection of your colleagues responses.
By Day 6
Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different
days using one or more of the following approaches:
Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional
background information, and evidence.
Share an insight from having read your colleagues postings,
synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.
Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings
from the classroom or from your own review of the literature in the Walden
Library.

Week 4 discussion
Ethical Dimensions of
Research Studies
In the best-selling book, The Immortal Life of Henrietta
Lacks (Skloot, 2010), the author highlights the true story of an
African-American woman who died in 1951 from cervical cancer. What makes her
story unique is that prior to her death, cells from her tumor were removed and
successfully grown in a petri dish. This was the first time scientists were
able to successfully replicate cells outside the body, and it is estimated that
billions of Lacks cells have been used in medical research. However, Henrietta
Lacks was never asked for permission to take a sample and her family was never
made aware of the widespread use of her cells. Although the culturing of her
cells has been pivotal for advancing research, strong ethical concerns later arose
about using these cells without patient or family approval.
This weeks readings describe historical examples of
unethical research, such as a study of syphilis among African-American men in
which treatment was withheld and a study in which live cancer cells were
injected into elderly patients. Today, stricter controls that seek to protect
study participants are placed on researchers, but breaches still occur. Careful
attention must be given toward preventing unethical behavior. In this
Discussion, you explore ethical considerations and issues in research.
To prepare:
Select a current health-related case involving research
ethics. (If none come to mind, browse the Internet to familiarize yourself with
recent cases.)
As you review the case that you have selected, reflect on
the ethical principles discussed in What Are the Major Ethical Issues in
Conducting Research? article found in this weeks Learning Resources. Which
principles were breached in the case you have identified?
By Day 3
Post a description of the case that you selected and the
ethical issues involved. Analyze the ethical principles that were breached by
the researchers or organizations in your selected case as well as the possible
cause of the breach(es). Suggest how the research might have been conducted
differently to avoid or minimize the ethical problems. Discuss how research can
be done on sensitive issues while still protecting the rights of the research
subjects.
Read a selection of your colleagues responses.
By Day 6
Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different
days using one or more of the following approaches:
Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional
background information, and evidence.
Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings
from the classroom or from your own review of the literature in the Walden
Library.
Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from
readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.

Week 5 discussion
Quantitative Research
Designs
In order to find the best information on a topic, not only
should you develop a question and search for resources, but you should also
know how to analyze the value of the resources that you identify. There are
different ways to evaluate resources, such as using the hierarchy of evidence,
which you explored in Week 4 of this course. Another way to evaluate resources
is to consider the appropriateness of the research design. Understanding how
research designs contribute to the quality of a study is essential for being
able to analyze resources when conducting a literature review or locating
evidence for practice.
In this Discussion, you consider the different research
designs and evaluate how these designs have been used to research a specific
topic. You also consider strategies for selecting an appropriate research
design.
To prepare:
Review the information in the course texton quantitative
research designs. Focus on the information in Box 9.1, Guidelines for
Critiquing Research Designs in Quantitative Studies located on page 230 of the
course text.
Select a topic from the list below and search the Walden
Library to find two different quantitative research studies addressing that
issue:
Caregiver stress
Anxiety in children
Sleep apnea
Depression in college freshmen
Rural health care issues
Post-traumatic stress syndrome
Traumatic brain injury in veterans
Health effects of environmental contaminants
Bipolar disorder
End-of-life ethical issues
Alternative medicine
For each of the sources that you select, identify the type
of quantitative research design used, and evaluate whether it is the most
appropriate approach to the research.
Consider the ramifications of choosing an inappropriate
design for a research study.
By Day 3
Post the topic you selected, references for the two sources
you identified, and the quantitative research design used in each. Critique the
appropriateness of the design used and justify your comments with information
from the Learning Resources. Discuss the ramifications of choosing an inappropriate
design for a research study.
Read a selection of your colleagues responses.
By Day 6
Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different
days in one or more of the following ways:
Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background
information, and evidence.
Share an insight from having read your colleagues postings,
synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.
Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings
from the classroom or from your own review of the literature in the Walden
Library.
Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from
readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.

Week 6 discussion
Validity in Quantitative Research Designs
Validity in research refers to
the extent researchers can be confident that the cause and effect they identify
in their research are in fact causal relationships. If there is low validity in
a study, it usually means that the research design is flawed and the results
will be of little or no value. Four different aspects of validity should be
considered when reviewing a research design: statistical conclusion validity,
internal validity, construct validity, and external validity. In this
Discussion, you consider the importance of each of these aspects in judging the
validity of quantitative research.
To prepare:
Review the information in Chapter
10 of the course text on rigor and validity.
Read the method section of one of
the following quasi-experimental studies (also located in this weeks Learning
Resources). Identify at least one potential concern that could be raised about
the studys internal validity.
Metheny, N. A., Davis-Jackson,
J., & Stewart, B. J. (2010). Effectiveness of an aspiration risk-reduction
protocol. Nursing Research, 59(1), 1825.
Padula, C. A., Hughes, C., &
Baumhover, L. (2009). Impact of a nurse-driven mobility protocol on functional
decline in hospitalized older adults. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 24(4),
325331.
Yuan, S., Chou, M., Hwu, L.,
Chang, Y., Hsu, W., & Kuo, H. (2009). An intervention program to promote
health-related physical fitness in nurses. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 18(10),
1,4041,411.
Consider strategies that could be
used to strengthen the studys internal validity and how this would impact the
three other types of validity.
Think about the consequences of
an advanced practice nurse neglecting to consider the validity of a research
study when reviewing the research for potential use in developing an
evidence-based practice.
By Day 3
Post the title of the study that
you selected and your analysis of the potential concerns that could be raised
about the studys internal validity. Propose recommendations to strengthen the
internal validity and assess the effect your changes could have with regard to
the other three types of validity. Discuss the dangers of failing to consider
the validity of a research study.
Read a selection of your
colleagues responses.
By Day 6
Respond to at least two of your
colleagues in one or more of the following ways:
Ask a probing question,
substantiated with additional background information, and evidence.
Share an insight from having read
your colleagues postings, synthesizing the information to provide new
perspectives.
Offer and support an alternative
perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own review of the
literature in the Walden Library.
Validate an idea with your own
experience and additional sources.
Make a suggestion based on
additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.
Expand on your colleagues
postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on
readings and evidence.

Week 7 discussion
Qualitative Research Designs
For the past 2 weeks, you have
focused on the features and considerations of quantitative research designs.
However, quantitative designs are not appropriate for all research questions.
Perhaps you are concerned with how patients react when confronted with negative
test results, or you wish to study how views on a certain health topic change
over time. In each of these cases, the emphasis is more on understanding the
thinking and experiences of an individual or group than on numerical
measurements. For these types of questions, a qualitative or mixed methods
research design is the most appropriate.
For this Discussion, you focus on
the different types of qualitative research designs, when they are used, and
why they are important.
To prepare:
Reflect on the comments made by
Dr. Mauk in this weeks media presentation on the value of qualitative research
in nursing.
Locate the journal Qualitative
Health Research in the Sage Premier database in the Walden Library.
From this journal, select an
article of interest to you that was published within the last 3 years.
Review the information on
different qualitative research designs in Chapter 21 of your course text.
Determine what qualitative
research design was used in your selected article and evaluate whether it was
the best choice.
Consider ethical issues involved
in the study and how the researchers addressed them.
Think about how using a
quantitative design would have affected the type of data gathered.
By Day 3
Post an APA citation for the
article that you selected and provide a brief summary of the content and the
qualitative research design used. Evaluate the appropriateness of the design,
and explain how ethical issues in the study were addressed. Analyze how the
study would have been different if a quantitative design had been used.
Read a selection of your
colleagues responses.
By Day 6
Respond to at least two of your
colleagues on two different days using one or more of the following approaches:
Ask a probing question,
substantiated with additional background information, and evidence.
Make a suggestion based on
additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple
postings.
Expand on your colleagues
postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on
readings and evidence.

Week 8 discussion
Planning for Data Collection
Data collection is an important
part of both quantitative and qualitative research. Although the actual
approach to gathering information may vary, for either research design,
researchers need to plan in advance how the data will be gathered, reported,
and stored, and they need to ensure that their methods are both reliable and
valid. As nurses review research when considering a new evidence-based
practice, it is important to be familiar with sound collection practices in
order to ascertain the credibility of the data presented.
Consider the following scenario:
Nurses and other health care
professionals are often interested in assessing patient satisfaction with
health care services. Imagine that you are a nurse working in a suburban
primary care setting that serves 10,000 patients annually. Your organization is
very interested in understanding the patients point of view to help determine
areas of care that can be improved. With this focus in mind, consider how you
would create a survey to assess patient satisfaction with the services your
organization provides. You may wish to consider variables such as the ease of
accessing care, patient wait time, friendliness of the staff, or the likelihood
that a patient would recommend your organization to others.
For this Discussion, you generate
questions and an overall plan for data collection that would be appropriate for
a patient satisfaction survey in relation to the above scenario.
To prepare:
Consider the guidelines for
generating questions presented in this weeks Learning Resources.
Review the scenario and formulate
at least five questions that you could use to evaluate patient satisfaction.
Reflect on the different methods
or instruments that can be used for gathering data described in Chapter 13 and
Chapter 22 of the course text. Which methods or instruments would work well for
the scenario?
Determine an appropriate sample
size for the scenario.
By Day 3
Post the questions that you
created for gathering information about patient satisfaction based on the above
scenario. Explain which method or instrument you would use to gather data.
Describe the sample size appropriate for the population and how you would
select participants. Provide a rationale for your choices, and explain how you
can ensure high standard of reliability and validity.
Read a selection of your
colleagues responses.
By Day 6
Respond to at least two of your
colleagues on two different days using one or more of the following approaches:
Ask a probing question,
substantiated with additional background information, and evidence.
Share an insight from having read
your colleagues postings, synthesizing the information to provide new
perspectives.
Offer and support an alternative
perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own review of the
literature in the Walden Library.
Validate an idea with your own
experience and additional sources.
Make a suggestion based on
additional evidence drawn from the readings or after synthesizing multiple
postings.

Week 9 discussion
Data AnalysisSmall Group Discussion
As a nurse engaged in
evidence-based practice, it is important to recognize how statistics and other
data analysis tools are used to generate and assess evidence. Most nurses need
only a foundational understanding of statistical tools and terminology to
understand the majority of research studies. As a nurse, you should be able to
recognize the most commonly used statistical tests, how and when they are used,
and how significance is determined.
In this Discussion, you examine
different types of statistics and statistical tests, when and why these
particular tests would be selected for use, and, most importantly, what the
results indicate. To this end, you will be assigned to a group by Day 1 of this
week. Each group will be assigned one of the five chapters listed in this
weeks Learning Resources and will develop a study sheet on their chapter that
will be shared with the other groups.
To prepare:
Review the information in your assigned
chapter.
As a group, develop a 1-page
study sheet that includes the following:
The key concepts of the chapter:
Focus on the basic concepts that are important for nurses to understand as they
review research studies.
A description of the statistical
methods covered in the chapter, what they measure, and under what circumstances
they are used. Identify examples of how the statistical methods have been used
in research studies.
An explanation of the key
statistical tests and how they measure significance (if applicable).
Note: This should be a
collaborative effort, with each member of the group making contributions to the
design and content of the study sheet. Use the Groups link on the left
navigation bar to collaborate with your group. When you have developed your
1-page study sheet, select one member to post it to the Week 9 Discussion Forum
so that the rest of your colleagues can access it.
By Day 5
Post your groups study sheet.
Discuss why it is important for nurses to understand the basics of these
statistical methods.
Read a selection of your
colleagues responses.
By Day 6
Respond to at least two other
groups on two different days using one or more of the following approaches:
Ask a probing question,
substantiated with additional background information, and evidence.
Share an insight from having read
your colleagues postings, synthesizing the information to provide new
perspectives.

Week 10 discussion
Weighing the Evidence
When conducting original
research, the final step researchers must complete is weighing the evidence and
interpreting the meanings of their data, statistics, and analyses. This is the
culmination of the research process in which all of the research methods and
designs can be synthesized into a meaningful conclusion. In this stage,
researchers should formulate explanations for what their data indicates,
determine whether the data answers their initial research question, identify
areas of uncertainty, and consider directions for further research.
In this Discussion, you focus on
one of the research articles that you identified for Part 2 of the Course
Project (Literature Review). You then explore the process of how the
researchers generated conclusions based on their data, consider other possible
interpretations of their data, and formulate ideas for further research.
To prepare:
Review this weeks Learning
Resources, focusing on how researchers find meaning in their data and generate
sound conclusions. Pay particular attention to Table 2 in the article, Study
Design in Medical Research.
Revisit the 5 articles that you
identified in Part 2 of the Course Project. Select one to consider for the
purpose of this Discussion.
Read sections of the chosen
article where the data is presented, analyzed, and interpreted for meaning.
What reasoning process did the researchers use to formulate their conclusions?
What explanation did they give to support their conclusions? Were there any
weaknesses in their analysis or conclusions?
Consider possible alternate
conclusions that the researchers could have drawn based on their data.
Examine the findings that the
article presents and consider how well they addressed the researchers initial
question(s). What additional research could be done to build on these findings
and gain a fuller understanding of the question?
By Day 3
Post an APA citation and brief
summary of the research article that you selected. Describe the data and the
results of any statistical tests or analyses presented in the article. Explain
how the researchers formulated their conclusion, any weaknesses in their
analysis or conclusions, and offer at least one alternate interpretation of
their data. Propose at least one additional research study that could be done
to further investigate this research topic.
Read a selection of your colleagues
responses.
By Day 6
Respond to at least two
colleagues on two different days using one or more of the following approaches:
Ask a probing question,
substantiated with additional background information, and evidence.
Share an insight from having read
your colleagues postings, synthesizing the information to provide new
perspectives.
Offer and support an alternative
perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own review of the
literature in the Walden Library.
Expand on your colleagues
postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on
readings and evidence.

Week 11 discussion
Creating a Culture of Evidence-Based Practice
An abundance of evidence can be
found on almost any medical issue or health topic. Often, the availability of
information is not the concern, but rather nurses struggle with how to convey
the evidence to others and change practices to better reflect the evidence.
Deep-rooted organizational cultures and policies can make some resistant to
change, even to changes that can vastly improve the quality, effectiveness, and
efficiency of health care. However, there are many strategies that nurses can
employ to bring about changes to practice.
In this Discussion, you focus on
how to create an organizational culture that supports evidence-based practice.
To prepare:
Review the information in this
weeks Learning Resources. Examine the various suggestions for promoting an
organizational culture that embraces the use of EBP.
Reflect on your own
organizations (or one in which you have worked) support of evidence-based
practice. Examine how culture and policies impact the adoption of changes to
practice based on evidence. What barriers exist?
Consider the models and
suggestions for promoting evidence-based practice featured in this weeks
Learning Resources. Identify models and suggestions that would work well in
your organization.
Reflect on the significance of
evidence-based practice in health care. What responsibility do nurses have to
promote EBP and change practices to better reflect evidence and research
findings?
Reflect on how nurses can
disseminate findings from evidence-based practice research.
By Day 3
Post an evaluation of your
organizations use of EBP and how it is furthered or hindered by organizational
culture and policies. Describe how you could disseminate the findings. Propose
a strategy for strengthening the culture of EBP within the organization.
Discuss a nurses responsibility to further the use of EBP, providing a rationale
supported by specific information from the Learning Resources.
Read a selection of your
colleagues responses.
By Day 6
Respond to at least two of your
colleagues on two different days using one or more of the following approaches:
Ask a probing question,
substantiated with additional background information, and evidence.
Share an insight from having read
your colleagues postings, synthesizing the information to provide new
perspectives.
Offer and support an alternative
perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own review of the
literature in the Walden Library.
Validate an idea with your own
experience and additional sources.
Make a suggestion based on
additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple
postings.
Expand on your colleagues
postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on
readings and evidence.

Week 2 project
Introduction to Course Project
Evidence-based practice involves
a great deal more than simply reading nursing periodicals on a regular basis.
Nurses can take a more proactive approach to evidence-based practice by
identifying authentic problems and concerns, and then using that to guide their
inquiries into current research. In this way, nurses can connect the results of
relevant research studies to their nursing practice.
For the Course Project, you
identify and apply relevant research to a specific nursing topic or problem.
You begin by formulating an answerable question that is relevant to nursing and
evidence-based practice. In later weeks of this course, you continue the Course
Project by conducting a literature review and then determining how the evidence
from the literature can be applied to nursing practice.
Before you begin, review the
Course Project Overview document located in this weeks Learning Resources.
Note: This Course Project will
serve as the Portfolio Assignment for the course. In addition to submitting
portions of this Project in Weeks 2 and 5, you will turn in all three
deliverables in Week 10.
Course Project: Part
1Identifying a Researchable Problem
One of the most challenging
aspects of EBP is to actually identify the answerable question.

Karen Sue Davies
Formulating a question that
targets the goal of your research is a challenging but essential task. The
question plays a crucial role in all other aspects of the research, including
the determination of the research design and theoretical perspective to be
applied, which data will be collected, and which tools will be used for analysis.
It is therefore essential to take the time to ensure that the research question
addresses what you actually want to study. Doing so will increase your
likelihood of obtaining meaningful results.
In this first component of the
Course Project, you formulate questions to address a particular nursing issue
or problem. You use the PICOT modelpatient/population, intervention/issue,
comparison, and outcomeoutlined in the Learning Resources to design your
questions.
To prepare:
Review the article, Formulating
the Evidence Based Practice Question: A Review of the Frameworks, found in the
Learning Resources for this week. Focus on the PICOT model for guiding the
development of research questions.
Review the section beginning on
page 71 of the course text, titled, Developing and Refining Research Problems
in the course text, which focuses on analyzing the feasibility of a research
problem.
Reflect on an issue or problem
that you have noticed in your nursing practice. Consider the significance of
this issue or problem.
Generate at least five questions
that relate to the issue which you have identified. Use the criteria in your
course text to select one question that would be most appropriate in terms of
significance, feasibility, and interest. Be prepared to explain your rationale.
Formulate a preliminary PICO
questionone that is answerablebased on your analysis. What are the PICO
variables (patient/population, intervention/issue, comparison, and outcome) for
this question?
Note: Not all of these variables
may be appropriate to every question. Be sure to analyze which are and are not
relevant to your specific question.
Using the PICOT variables that
you determined for your question, develop a list of at least 10 keywords that
could be used when conducting a literature search to investigate current
research pertaining to the question.
To complete:
Write a 3- to 4-page paper that
includes the following:
A summary of your area of
interest, an identification of the problem that you have selected, and an
explanation of the significance of this problem for nursing practice
The 5 questions you have
generated and a description of how you analyzed them for feasibility
Your preliminary PICOT question
and a description of each PICOT variable relevant to your question
At least 10 possible keywords
that could be used when conducting a literature search for your PICOT question
and a rationale for your selections
By Day 7
Submit your Project. It will also
be a component of your Portfolio Assignment for this course, which is due by
Day 7 of Week 10.
Reference:
Davies, K. S. (2011). Formulating
the evidence based practice question: A review of the frameworks. Evidence
Based Library and Information Practice, 6(2), 7580. Retrieved from
https://ejournals.library.ualberta.ca/index.php/EBLIP/article/viewFile/9741/8144
Submission and Grading
Information
To submit your completed Project
for review and grading, do the following:
Please save your Project using
the naming convention WK2Proj+last name+first initial.(extension) as the name.
Click the Week 2 Project Rubric
to review the Grading Criteria for the Project.
Click the Week 2 Project link.
You will also be able to View Rubric for grading criteria from this area.
Next, from the Attach File area,
click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as
WK2Proj+last name+first initial.(extension) and click Open.
If applicable: From the
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Week 5 project
Course Project: Part 2Literature Review
This is a continuation of the
Course Project presented in Week 2. Before you begin, review the Course Project
Overview document located in the Week 2 Resources area.
The literature review is a
critical piece in the research process because it helps a researcher determine
what is currently known about a topic and identify gaps or further questions.
Conducting a thorough literature review can be a time-consuming process, but
the effort helps establish the foundation for everything that will follow. For
this part of your Course Project, you will conduct a brief literature review to
find information on the question you developed in Week 2. This will provide you
with experience in searching databases and identifying applicable resources.
To prepare:
Review the information in Chapter
5 of the course text, focusing on the steps for conducting a literature review
and for compiling your findings.
Using the question you selected in
your Week 2 Project (Part 1 of the Course Project), locate 5 or more full-text
research articles that are relevant to your PICOT question. Include at least 1
systematic review and 1 integrative review if possible. Use the search tools
and techniques mentioned in your readings this week to enhance the
comprehensiveness and objectivity of your review. You may gather these articles
from any appropriate source, but make sure at least 3 of these articles are
available as full-text versions through Walden Librarys databases.
Read through the articles
carefully. Eliminate studies that are not appropriate and add others to your
list as needed. Although you may include more, you are expected to include a
minimum of five articles. Complete a literature review summary table using the
Literature Review Summary Table Template located in this weeks Learning
Resources.
Prepare to summarize and
synthesize the literature using the information on writing a literature review
found in Chapter 5 of the course text.
To complete:
Write a 3- to 4-page literature
review that includes the following:
A synthesis of what the studies
reveal about the current state of knowledge on the question that you developed
Point out inconsistencies and
contradictions in the literature and offer possible explanations for
inconsistencies.
Preliminary conclusions on whether
the evidence provides strong support for a change in practice or whether
further research is needed to adequately address your inquiry
Your literature review summary
table with all references formatted in correct APA style
Note: Certain aspects of
conducting a standard review of literature have not yet been covered in this
course. Therefore, while you are invited to critically examine any aspect of
the studies (e.g., a studys design, appropriateness of the theoretic
framework, data sampling methods), your conclusion should be considered
preliminary. Bear in mind that five studies are typically not enough to reflect
the full range of knowledge on a particular question and you are not expected
to be familiar enough with research methodology to conduct a comprehensive
evaluation of all aspects of the studies.
By Day 7 of Week 5
This part of the Course Project is
due. It will also be a component in your Portfolio Assignment in this course,
which is due by Day 7 of Week 10.
Week 7 assignment
Assignment: Critiquing Quantitative, Qualitative, or Mixed Methods
Studies
Critiquing the validity and
robustness of research featured in journal articles provides a critical
foundation for engaging in evidence-based practice. In Weeks 5 and 6, you
explored quantitative research designs. In Week 7, you will examine qualitative
and mixed methods research designs. For this Assignment, which is due by Day 7
of Week 7, you critique a quantitative and either a qualitative or a mixed
methods research study and compare the types of information obtained in each.
To prepare:
Select a health topic of interest
to you that is relevant to your current area of practice. The topic may be your
Course Portfolio Project or a different topic of your choice.
Using the Walden Library, locate
two articles in scholarly journals that deal with your portfolio topic: 1)
Select one article that utilizes a quantitative research design and 2) select a
second article that utilizes either a qualitative OR a mixed methods design.
These need to be single studies not systematic or integrative reviews
(including meta-analysis and metasynthesis). You may use research articles from
your reference list. If you cannot find these two types of research on your
portfolio topic, you may choose another topic.
Locate the following documents in
this weeks Learning Resources to access the appropriate templates, which will
guide your critique of each article:
Critique Template for a
Qualitative Study
Critique Template for a
Quantitative Study
Critique Template for a
Mixed-Methods Study
Consider the fields in the
templates as you review the information in each article. Begin to draft a paper
in which you analyze the two research approaches as indicated below. Reflect on
the overall value of both quantitative and qualitative research. If someone
were to say to you, Qualitative research is not real science, how would you
respond?
To complete this Assignment:
Complete the two critiques using
the appropriate templates.
Write a 2- to 3-page paper that
addresses the following:
Contrast the types of information
that you gained from examining the two different research approaches in the
articles that you selected.
Describe the general advantages
and disadvantages of the two research approaches featured in the articles. Use
examples from the articles for support.
Formulate a response to the claim
that qualitative research is not real science. Highlight the general insights
that both quantitative and qualitative studies can provide to researchers.
Support your response with references to the Learning Resources and other
credible sources.
As you complete this Assignment,
remember to:
Submit your paper to Grammarly and
SafeAssign through the Walden Writing Center. Based on the Grammarly and
SafeAssign reports, revise your paper as necessary.
Reminder: The School of Nursing
requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary,
and references. The School of Nursing Sample Paper provided at the Walden
Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available from
the Walden University website found in this weeks Learning Resources). All
papers submitted must use this formatting.
Combine all three parts of this
assignment into one Word document including both critique templates and the
narrative with your references. Submit this combined document.
By Day 7 of Week 7

Week 10 course project
Course Project: Part 3Translating Evidence Into Practice
In Part 3 of the Course Project,
you consider how the evidence you gathered during Part 2 can be translated into
nursing practice.
Now that you have located
available research on your PICOT question, you will examine what the research
indicates about nursing practices. Connecting research evidence and findings to
actual decisions and tasks that nurses complete in their daily practice is
essentially what evidence-based practice is all about. This final component of
the Course Project asks you to translate the evidence and data from your
literature review into authentic practices that can be adopted to improve
health care outcomes. In addition, you will also consider possible methods and
strategies for disseminating evidence-based practices to your colleagues and to
the broader health care field.
To prepare:
Consider Parts 1 and 2 of your
Course Project. How does the research address your PICOT question?
With your PICOT question in mind,
identify at least one nursing practice that is supported by the evidence in two
or more of the articles from your literature review. Consider what the evidence
indicates about how this practice contributes to better outcomes.
Explore possible consequences of
failing to adopt the evidence-based practice that you identified.
Consider how you would disseminate
information about this evidence-based practice throughout your organization or
practice setting. How would you communicate the importance of the practice?
To complete:
In a 3- to 4-page paper:
Restate your PICOT question and
its significance to nursing practice.
Summarize the findings from the
articles you selected for your literature review. Describe at least one nursing
practice that is supported by the evidence in the articles. Justify your
response with specific references to at least 2 of the articles.
Explain how the evidence-based
practice that you identified contributes to better outcomes. In addition,
identify potential negative outcomes that could result from failing to use the
evidence-based practice.
Outline the strategy for
disseminating the evidence-based practice that you identified throughout your
practice setting. Explain how you would communicate the importance of the
practice to your colleagues. Describe how you would move from disseminating the
information to implementing the evidence-based practice within your
organization. How would you address concerns and opposition to the change in
practice?
By Day 7 of Week 10
This part of the Course Project is
due. It should be combined with the other two components of the Course Project
and turned in as your Portfolio Assignment for this course.
Note: In addition, include a
1-page summary of your project.
For this final iteration, you will
need to:
Submit your paper to Grammarly and
SafeAssign through the Walden Writing Center. Based on the Grammarly and
SafeAssign reports, revise your paper as necessary.
Reminder: The School of Nursing
requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary,
and references. The School of Nursing Sample Paper provided at the Walden Writing
Center provides an example of those required elements (available from the
Walden University website found in this weeks Learning Resources). All papers
submitted must use this formatting.

Week 1 discussion Nursing Research and
Evidence-Based PracticeIn your practice as a nurse, you may use procedures and
methods that did not necessarily originate in evidence, but instead were
derived from informal and unwritten conventions, traditions, and observations.
While these techniques may have merit, practices are constantly being updated
and contradicted by information from scholarly research studies and
professional guidelines. This new information serves as evidence for revising
practices to improve outcomes across health care.Based on this evidence, you can formulate a question. In
this Discussion, you consider the use of evidence-based practice in your own
organization and formulate a question that you will need to answer for your
portfolio project. This is called a PICOT question. You will also investigate
strategies for overcoming barriers to implementing evidence-based practice
(EBP).To prepare:Consider a recent clinical experience in which you were
providing care for a patient.Determine the extent to which the care that you provided was
based on evidence and research findings or supported only by your
organizations standard procedures. How do you know if the tasks were based on
research?What questions have you thought about in a particular area
of care such as a procedure or policy?Review Chapter 2, pages 3639 on Asking Well worded
Clinical Questions in Polit & Beck and consult the resource from the
Walden Student Center for Success: Clinical Question Anatomy & examples of
PICOT questions (found in this weeks Learning Resources). Formulate your
background questions and PICOT question.Reflect on the barriers that might inhibit the
implementation of evidence-based practice in your clinical environment.Review the article Adopting Evidence-Based Practice in
Clinical Decision Making in this weeks Learning Resources. Select one of the
barriers described that is evident in your organization and formulate a plan
for overcoming this barrier.By Day 3Post an evaluation of the use, or lack thereof, of EBP in a
recent clinical experience. Identify which aspects of the care delivered, if
any, were based on evidence and provide your rationale. List your background
questions and PICOT question about this nursing topic. Critique how the policies,
procedures, and culture in your organization may hinder or support the adoption
of evidence-based practices. Identify the barrier you selected from the article
and explain how this barrier could be overcome within your organization.Read a selection of your colleagues responses.By Day 6Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different
days using one or more of the following approaches:Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional
background information, and evidence.Share an insight from having read your colleagues postings,
synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.Validate an idea with your own experience and additional
sources.Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from
readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.Expand on your colleagues postings by providing additional
strategies for addressing barriers to EBP based on readings and evidence.

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